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AC Refrigeration Compressor Functions [2012-03-26]


The refrigerated air dryer of AC Refrigeration Compressor cools the incoming compressed air first in an air-to-air heat exchanger where the outgoing cool dry air pre-cools the hot incoming air and condenses some moisture out.
Then the incoming air enters an air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger where the air is cooled to 38o F by the liquid refrigerant.
This process causes the moisture to condense into liquid water and it is drained away.
The out going air then enters the air-to-air heat exchanger and is warmed up to keep the outside of pipes from sweating.
Rotary Screw Compressors
Rotary screw compressors have screw spindles that compress the gas as it enters from the evaporator. The screw compressor features smooth operation and minimal maintenance requirements; typically these compressors only require changes in oil, the oil filter and the air/oil separator. Microprocessor-based controllers are also available for standard rotary compressors, which allow the rotary to remain loaded 100 percent of the time. There are two types of rotary screw compressors: single and twin.
Reciprocating Compressors
A reciprocating Fridge Compressor uses a piston-actuated unloading mechanism with spring-loaded pins to raise the suction valve plate from its seat, allowing the unit to be used at any pressure ratio. This action is similar to an internal combustion engine in a car. This type of compressor is efficient at both full- and part-load operation. Further advantages include simple controls and the ability to control the speed through the use of belt drives. The reciprocating compressor is used in low-horsepower applications.
Scroll Compressors
Scroll compressors work by moving one spiral element inside another stationary spiral to produce gas pockets that, as they become smaller, increase the pressure of the gas. During compression, several pockets are compressed at once. By maintaining an even number of balanced gas pockets on opposite sides, the compression forces inside the scroll balance and reduce vibration inside the compressor. This type of compressor uses the scroll design instead of a fixed cylinder or a piston or single-sided compression mechanism, eliminating wasted space in the compression chamber and eliminating the need to compress gas again and again during the cycle (recompression). This reduces energy use.
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal compressors compress refrigerant gas through the centrifugal force created by rotors that spin at high speed. This energy is then sent to a diffuser, which converts a portion of it into increased pressure. It does this by expanding the region of the flow volume to slow the flow velocity of the working fluid. Diffusers may use airfoils, also known as vanes, to improve this. Centrifugal compressors are suited for compressing large volumes of gas to moderate pressures.
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